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Delft University of Technology

1. Rodrigues Santos, A.L. Lighting Pelvic Surgeries:.

Degree: 2009, Delft University of Technology

This report aims in one hand to demonstrate the carried out iterative process of product development including the chosen framework, decision validation, tests and conclusions. On the other hand it intends to be a contribution for the creation of specific standards for surgical illumination. The premise of this project was the insufficient visualization in the deep pelvis during open surgery. The deep pelvis has a complex anatomy because it includes a great number of organs in a particularly small and curved cavity. Shadows, blood obstruction and procedure limitations are permanent challenges a surgeon must face when operating in this region. The available lighting options do not solve the problem since they provide no adequate light focus and are not designer to manoeuvre within space limitations. Other solutions in the market as specific small illuminators are considered to expensive or uncomfortable to use. Chapter 1 introduces the approach undertaken to the claimed problem. This analysis is structured in four main aspects that surround the field of design concerns in order to create a framework around which to work. The context topic is related to the experience of getting in touch with the medical subject for the first time. It is a complex field of specific scientific knowledge and strict rules which are fundamental to understand and be familiar with, in order to properly locate the designed product. Light is the particular domain of this assignment. A study of basic knowledge about light is introduced followed by the characterization of medical lighting. This study revealed its importance not only for the choice of an adequate light technology but also for the fact that the lessons learned in this chapter’s topic were decisive for the development of the final design solution. The understanding of the behaviour of light and the working principle of optical fibres allowed a creative move towards a new product, based in a simple theory. In addition the light requirements for medical purpose were found to have few specialized standards. This project started up an inventory of important measurements to contribute for the surgical lighting knowledge necessary to develop good products. An overview of the existing products available in market made possible to understand that mostly optical fibre and LED light sources have potential for lighting a surgical scene. This is basically due to their size, minimal heat emission and light quality. Both technology and associated products have advantages and drawbacks that were considered for the development of this product. The topic about environment makes a call of attention to the problems related with the lifecycle of current products, such as plastic disposables, and their respective waste streams in particular the demanding biomedical waste management. An overview of the available options for the today’s products disposal is made with the respective characterization. Solutions can and must be found in strategies of shared responsibility and contribution that start with… Advisors/Committee Members: Jakimowicz, J., Goossens, R..

Subjects/Keywords: Light; Open surgery

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APA (6th Edition):

Rodrigues Santos, A. L. (2009). Lighting Pelvic Surgeries:. (Masters Thesis). Delft University of Technology. Retrieved from

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Rodrigues Santos, A L. “Lighting Pelvic Surgeries:.” 2009. Masters Thesis, Delft University of Technology. Accessed October 18, 2019.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Rodrigues Santos, A L. “Lighting Pelvic Surgeries:.” 2009. Web. 18 Oct 2019.


Rodrigues Santos AL. Lighting Pelvic Surgeries:. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Delft University of Technology; 2009. [cited 2019 Oct 18]. Available from:

Council of Science Editors:

Rodrigues Santos AL. Lighting Pelvic Surgeries:. [Masters Thesis]. Delft University of Technology; 2009. Available from: