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You searched for +publisher:"Case Western Reserve University" +contributor:("Kazura, James"). Showing records 1 – 3 of 3 total matches.

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Case Western Reserve University

1. Greene, Jennifer A. Toll-like Receptor Polymorphisms and Cerebral Malaria.

Degree: PhD, Pathology, 2010, Case Western Reserve University

Cerebral malaria is a severe neurologic complication of P. falciparum infection which occurs in individuals with little or no acquired immunity to malaria, mostly children in endemic areas. Some cerebral malaria patients make a full recovery with the use of anti-malarial drugs, however the mortality rate is 18.6%, and 10.9% of recovering children have neurological deficits. The multi-factorial pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is characterized by sequestration of parasitized red blood cells within the cerebral microvasculature and an over-vigorous host pro-inflammatory response. Host genetic factors which influence the magnitude of pro-inflammatory response are likely to affect malaria disease outcome and be under selective pressure by malaria. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are activated by P. falciparum derived ligands to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Because of their role in the innate immune response to malaria, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms within TLR genes may affect susceptibility to cerebral malaria. In a case control study examining Ugandan children with cerebral malaria or uncomplicated malaria, we found that TLR polymorphisms differentially affected susceptibility to cerebral malaria, and this corresponded to altered pro-inflammatory responses. Heterozygosity for a 22 bp deletion in the first unstranslated exon of TLR2 was associated with protection from cerebral malaria (p=0.005, OR 0.34), and reduced pam3cys inducible TLR2 expression in vitro. Homozygosity for a TLR9 promoter SNP -1237T/C was associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria (p=0.04, OR 3.69), and elevated serum IFN-¿ levels in vivo. We conclude that the protective TLR2 polymorphism was associated with potential dampening of pro-inflammatory responses, whereas, the susceptibility enhancing TLR9 SNP was associated with over-vigorous pro-inflammatory responses in vivo. Despite the profound effects on susceptibility to cerebral malaria, we found no evidence that these TLR polymorphisms are under selective pressure by malaria according to allele frequencies in two Kenyan study sites with different malaria endemicity levels. Advisors/Committee Members: Emancipator, Steven (Committee Chair), Kazura, James (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Genetics; Immunology; TLR; malaria; cytokine; SNP

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Greene, J. A. (2010). Toll-like Receptor Polymorphisms and Cerebral Malaria. (Doctoral Dissertation). Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1270153850

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Greene, Jennifer A. “Toll-like Receptor Polymorphisms and Cerebral Malaria.” 2010. Doctoral Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University. Accessed February 22, 2019. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1270153850.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Greene, Jennifer A. “Toll-like Receptor Polymorphisms and Cerebral Malaria.” 2010. Web. 22 Feb 2019.

Vancouver:

Greene JA. Toll-like Receptor Polymorphisms and Cerebral Malaria. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Case Western Reserve University; 2010. [cited 2019 Feb 22]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1270153850.

Council of Science Editors:

Greene JA. Toll-like Receptor Polymorphisms and Cerebral Malaria. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Case Western Reserve University; 2010. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1270153850


Case Western Reserve University

2. Ostrout, Nicholas D. Vaccinia and Dengue Viruses: Exploring Current Fundamental Issues of Memory T Cells and Utilizing Comparative Quantitative Immunology to Compare Correlates of Protection Following Smallpox Immunization.

Degree: PhD, Pathology, 2008, Case Western Reserve University

Memory T cells often perform an important role in mediating viral clearance upon secondary viral infection. Therefore, expanding the current understanding of issues surrounding memory T cell development, the long term maintenance and the functional characteristics of different memory subsets is essential. A deeper understanding of these issues surrounding memory T cells will aid in generating more successful vaccines. The unsuccessful attempts to create vaccines to protect against devastating diseases such as HIV and malaria have highlighted the flaws in traditional approaches of developing empirically derived vaccines. Data obtained from the following studies can be used and applied to rationally attain new, 21st century vaccines. The work presented here focuses on two viruses, vaccinia and Dengue. However, the questions addressed have implications beyond these two pathogens. Here we present findings on the long term maintenance and functional properties of effector and central memory T cells in humans last vaccinated with vaccinia virus over 30 years previously. These data provides a basis for a quantitative immunological comparison after administration of new smallpox vaccines. Utilizing a mouse model of vaccinia infection, we then address how antigen duration and the induction of inflammation effects memory T cell development. Finally, the four serotyes of Dengue virus provided us with an opportunity to study heterologous infection and the possible detrimental effects of partial T cell agonists on memory T cells. Advisors/Committee Members: Kaplan, David (Committee Chair), Kazura, James (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Immunology; T cells; CD8; memory; vaccinia; orthopox; dengue

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Ostrout, N. D. (2008). Vaccinia and Dengue Viruses: Exploring Current Fundamental Issues of Memory T Cells and Utilizing Comparative Quantitative Immunology to Compare Correlates of Protection Following Smallpox Immunization. (Doctoral Dissertation). Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1205938117

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Ostrout, Nicholas D. “Vaccinia and Dengue Viruses: Exploring Current Fundamental Issues of Memory T Cells and Utilizing Comparative Quantitative Immunology to Compare Correlates of Protection Following Smallpox Immunization.” 2008. Doctoral Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University. Accessed February 22, 2019. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1205938117.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Ostrout, Nicholas D. “Vaccinia and Dengue Viruses: Exploring Current Fundamental Issues of Memory T Cells and Utilizing Comparative Quantitative Immunology to Compare Correlates of Protection Following Smallpox Immunization.” 2008. Web. 22 Feb 2019.

Vancouver:

Ostrout ND. Vaccinia and Dengue Viruses: Exploring Current Fundamental Issues of Memory T Cells and Utilizing Comparative Quantitative Immunology to Compare Correlates of Protection Following Smallpox Immunization. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Case Western Reserve University; 2008. [cited 2019 Feb 22]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1205938117.

Council of Science Editors:

Ostrout ND. Vaccinia and Dengue Viruses: Exploring Current Fundamental Issues of Memory T Cells and Utilizing Comparative Quantitative Immunology to Compare Correlates of Protection Following Smallpox Immunization. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Case Western Reserve University; 2008. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1205938117

3. Siba, Valentine. EFFECT OF BED NETS ON ACQUIRED HUMORAL IMMUNITY TO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ANTIGENS IN CHILDREN FROM MUGIL, MADANG PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA.

Degree: MSs, Biology, 2017, Case Western Reserve University

Papua New Guinea (PNG) is endemic to P. falciparum and has the highest burden of malaria outside of Africa with an estimated 1.36 million cases each year. Malaria control and elimination efforts have proven to reduce the burden of the disease in PNG through the distribution and use of insecticide treated nets (INTs) especially in highly endemic areas. Evidence suggests that antibodies mediate protection against infection, and immunity against malaria is associated with repeated exposure to the disease. This study is focused on comparing antibody levels between children who did not use ITNs and children who used ITNs in a malaria endemic region of PNG. The overall results showed higher levels of antibody responses to P. falciparum in the group of children who did not use ITNs and low antibody responses to P. falciparum in the group of children who used ITNs. This suggests that the use of ITNs may have an effect on immunity to malaria in children. Advisors/Committee Members: Benard, Michael (Committee Chair), Kazura, James (Advisor).

Subjects/Keywords: Biology; Immunology

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Siba, V. (2017). EFFECT OF BED NETS ON ACQUIRED HUMORAL IMMUNITY TO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ANTIGENS IN CHILDREN FROM MUGIL, MADANG PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA. (Masters Thesis). Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved from http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1485675594752553

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Siba, Valentine. “EFFECT OF BED NETS ON ACQUIRED HUMORAL IMMUNITY TO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ANTIGENS IN CHILDREN FROM MUGIL, MADANG PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA.” 2017. Masters Thesis, Case Western Reserve University. Accessed February 22, 2019. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1485675594752553.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Siba, Valentine. “EFFECT OF BED NETS ON ACQUIRED HUMORAL IMMUNITY TO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ANTIGENS IN CHILDREN FROM MUGIL, MADANG PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA.” 2017. Web. 22 Feb 2019.

Vancouver:

Siba V. EFFECT OF BED NETS ON ACQUIRED HUMORAL IMMUNITY TO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ANTIGENS IN CHILDREN FROM MUGIL, MADANG PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA. [Internet] [Masters thesis]. Case Western Reserve University; 2017. [cited 2019 Feb 22]. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1485675594752553.

Council of Science Editors:

Siba V. EFFECT OF BED NETS ON ACQUIRED HUMORAL IMMUNITY TO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ANTIGENS IN CHILDREN FROM MUGIL, MADANG PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA. [Masters Thesis]. Case Western Reserve University; 2017. Available from: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=case1485675594752553

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