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You searched for +publisher:"Brown University" +contributor:("Dunaevsky, Anna"). Showing records 1 – 2 of 2 total matches.

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1. Chapman, Judith A. Plasticity in the vertebrate central auditory system: Changes during development and after injury in the adult.

Degree: PhD, Psychology, 2008, Brown University

The likelihood of functional recovery following neural injury decreases with species complexity, maturity, and whether the injury affects the CNS or PNS. Adult vertebrates unlikely to successfully regenerate injured neurites into the CNS. This is most evident in adult mammals. Whereas there is moderate success in regenerating injured neurites peripherally, often growth cones immediately collapse upon reaching the PNS/CNS border rarely entering the transitional zone. Nonpermissive molecules located within the CNS are thought responsible for ineffective regeneration, as is the lack of limited growth-permissive/instructive molecules. Adult anurans (frogs and toads) express many of these nonpermissive molecules within their CNS, but they are able to regenerate and functionally recover into the CNS targets after nerve lesion (optic and vestibuloauditory nerve lesion (n.II and n.VIII; Sperry 1945; Zakon, 1983.) To understand how effective CNS regeneration occurs in the adult, with the goal of finding a future clinical application, we must further understand how regenerating neurites can effectively "override" nonpermissive signals and recover function without experimenter interference. Regeneration of lesioned cranial nerve (n.VIII) in anurans is studied during pre-determined recovery times. All experiments were also carried out in controls for the opportunity to compare between recovery time and treatment groups:, as follows : 1) cell "birth dating" experiments to investigate differences in mitotic patterns, new cell retention, and post-mitotic phenotypes in n.VIII targets within the medulla; 2) the anatomical extent of regeneration and target connectivity was also explored using lipophilic fluorescent tracers; 3) the vestibular postural deficits from unilateral n.VIII crush (head tilt, limb sprawl) was quantified over recovery time ; 4) and, finally, since the discovery of new genes (or transcriptomes) are expected to be central in understanding permissive regeneration within the nonpermissive CNS, the final experiment included the gene discovery technique, DD-PCR. This technique found differences in mRNA transcripts between lesioned and sham frog tissues homologous to mammalian cDNA s sequences function unknown. Advisors/Committee Members: Simmons, Andrea (director), Dunaevsky, Anna (reader), Fallon, Justin (reader).

Subjects/Keywords: regeneration

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APA (6th Edition):

Chapman, J. A. (2008). Plasticity in the vertebrate central auditory system: Changes during development and after injury in the adult. (Doctoral Dissertation). Brown University. Retrieved from https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:303/

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Chapman, Judith A. “Plasticity in the vertebrate central auditory system: Changes during development and after injury in the adult.” 2008. Doctoral Dissertation, Brown University. Accessed October 19, 2018. https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:303/.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Chapman, Judith A. “Plasticity in the vertebrate central auditory system: Changes during development and after injury in the adult.” 2008. Web. 19 Oct 2018.

Vancouver:

Chapman JA. Plasticity in the vertebrate central auditory system: Changes during development and after injury in the adult. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Brown University; 2008. [cited 2018 Oct 19]. Available from: https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:303/.

Council of Science Editors:

Chapman JA. Plasticity in the vertebrate central auditory system: Changes during development and after injury in the adult. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Brown University; 2008. Available from: https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:303/

2. Lippman, Jocelyn Jean. Forming the tripartite synapse: Development of glial ensheathment and its role in synaptogenesis.

Degree: PhD, Neuroscience, 2008, Brown University

Over the last few decades, scientists have begun to fully recognize the importance of astroglia in synaptic formation and function. The perisynaptic glial processes are in an ideal location to exert influence over the synapses, but how these astrocytic processes become associated with synaptic structures during development is still not well understood. Here we analyzed the pattern of growth of the processes extending off the main Bergmann glial (BG) shafts during synaptogenesis in the cerebellum. We found that during this period, BG process outgrowth was correlated with increased ensheathment of dendritic spines. In addition, two-photon time-lapse imaging revealed that BG processes were highly dynamic, and processes became more stable as the period of spine ensheathment progressed. While process motility was dependent on actin polymerization, activity of cytoskeletal regulators Rac1 and RhoG did not play a role in glial process dynamics or density, but was critical for maintaining process length. We extended this finding to probe the relationship between glial process morphology and ensheathment, finding that shortening the processes by blocking rac1 activity leads to decreased coverage of the spine. Furthermore, we found that experimentally retracting BG processes towards the end of the period of synaptogenesis, and therefore lowering level of synaptic ensheathment, did not alter dendritic spine motility but resulted in these areas having more synapses than in controls with normal levels of ensheathment. These analyses reveal how BG processes grow to surround synaptic structures, elucidate the importance of BG process structure for proper development of synaptic ensheathment, and reveal a role for ensheathment in the regulation of synapse number. Advisors/Committee Members: Dunaevsky, Anna (Director), Connors, Barry (Reader), Berson, David (Reader), Aizenman, Carlos (Reader), Hatten, Mary Beth (Reader).

Subjects/Keywords: cerebellar development

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Lippman, J. J. (2008). Forming the tripartite synapse: Development of glial ensheathment and its role in synaptogenesis. (Doctoral Dissertation). Brown University. Retrieved from https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:11021/

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Lippman, Jocelyn Jean. “Forming the tripartite synapse: Development of glial ensheathment and its role in synaptogenesis.” 2008. Doctoral Dissertation, Brown University. Accessed October 19, 2018. https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:11021/.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Lippman, Jocelyn Jean. “Forming the tripartite synapse: Development of glial ensheathment and its role in synaptogenesis.” 2008. Web. 19 Oct 2018.

Vancouver:

Lippman JJ. Forming the tripartite synapse: Development of glial ensheathment and its role in synaptogenesis. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Brown University; 2008. [cited 2018 Oct 19]. Available from: https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:11021/.

Council of Science Editors:

Lippman JJ. Forming the tripartite synapse: Development of glial ensheathment and its role in synaptogenesis. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Brown University; 2008. Available from: https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:11021/

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