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1. Neske, Garrett T. Roles of diverse inhibitory interneurons and mechanisms of synchronized inhibition in active cortical networks.

Degree: PhD, Neuroscience, 2016, Brown University

The neocortex contains two categories of neurons: excitatory neurons, which enhance other neurons’ activities, and inhibitory interneurons, which decrease other neurons’ activities. Balanced activation of these two cell types is essential to proper cortical function. Interneuron subtypes are diverse, but their distinct circuit-level roles are not well understood. My goal was to study the contributions of diverse interneuron subtypes during spontaneous activity in the local cortical network. These periods of activity (Up states) occur during the local network oscillations of quiescent behavior, such as slow-wave sleep. Spontaneous Up states also occur in isolated cortical slices. I recorded from individual excitatory cells and diverse inhibitory interneurons during Up states in slices of mouse somatosensory cortex in vitro. In part one, I showed that multiple interneuron subtypes exhibit robust spiking during Up states. While fast-spiking PV cells were the most active, other interneuron subtypes were as active or more active than excitatory cells. Interestingly, the situation was quite different in another cortical region, the entorhinal cortex: PV cells were virtually the only active interneuron subtype. This suggests that the contribution of interneuron subtypes to Up states may vary among cortical regions. In part two, I further studied the contributions of two interneuron subtypes: SOM cells and VIP cells. I showed that while optogenetic silencing of SOM cells removed a functionally significant amount of inhibition from excitatory cells during Up states, silencing VIP cells did not have an effect on excitatory cells. Furthermore, despite the inhibition of SOM cells by VIP cells, optogenetic activation of VIP cells also did not affect the activity of excitatory cells. These results suggest that the contribution of VIP cells during network activity may depend on cortical state. In part three, I studied the mechanisms of interneuron spike synchrony during Up states. I showed that interneurons exhibit precise spike synchrony, which is largely insensitive to the absence of electrical synapses. I also presented evidence that the most likely mechanism of spike synchrony is shared excitatory drive. The results of this thesis provide new insight about the contributions of diverse interneuron subtypes in the active cortex. Advisors/Committee Members: Connors, Barry (Director), Berson, David (Reader), Truccolo, Wilson (Reader), Cardin, Jessica (Reader).

Subjects/Keywords: cortex

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APA · Chicago · MLA · Vancouver · CSE | Export to Zotero / EndNote / Reference Manager

APA (6th Edition):

Neske, G. T. (2016). Roles of diverse inhibitory interneurons and mechanisms of synchronized inhibition in active cortical networks. (Doctoral Dissertation). Brown University. Retrieved from https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:674130/

Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition):

Neske, Garrett T. “Roles of diverse inhibitory interneurons and mechanisms of synchronized inhibition in active cortical networks.” 2016. Doctoral Dissertation, Brown University. Accessed October 24, 2019. https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:674130/.

MLA Handbook (7th Edition):

Neske, Garrett T. “Roles of diverse inhibitory interneurons and mechanisms of synchronized inhibition in active cortical networks.” 2016. Web. 24 Oct 2019.

Vancouver:

Neske GT. Roles of diverse inhibitory interneurons and mechanisms of synchronized inhibition in active cortical networks. [Internet] [Doctoral dissertation]. Brown University; 2016. [cited 2019 Oct 24]. Available from: https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:674130/.

Council of Science Editors:

Neske GT. Roles of diverse inhibitory interneurons and mechanisms of synchronized inhibition in active cortical networks. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Brown University; 2016. Available from: https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:674130/

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