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Title 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase: Characterization of the Enzymatic Mechanism, Reaction Selectivity, and Structural Plasticity
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University/Publisher University of South Florida
Abstract 5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) catalyzes the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent condensation between glycine and succinyl-CoA to generate coenzyme A (CoA), CO2, and 5-aminolevulinate (ALA). The chemical mechanism of this reaction, which represents the first and regulated step of heme biosynthesis in mammals, involves the formation of a short-lived glycine quinonoid intermediate and an unstable 2-amino-3-ketoadipate intermediate. Using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the products from the reaction of murine erythroid ALAS (mALAS2) with O-methylglycine and succinyl-CoA, we directly identified the chemical nature of the inherently unstable 2-amino-3-ketoadipate intermediate, which predicates the glycine quinonoid species as its precursor. With stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy, we detected and confirmed the formation of the quinonoid intermediate upon reacting glycine with ALAS. Significantly, in the absence of the succinyl-CoA substrate, the external aldimine predominates over the glycine quinonoid intermediate. When instead of glycine, L-serine was reacted with ALAS, a lag phase was observed in the progress curve for the L-serine external aldimine formation, indicating a hysteretic behavior in ALAS. Hysteresis was not detected in the T148A-catalyzed L-serine external aldimine formation. These results with T148A, a mALAS2 variant, which, in contrast to the wild-type enzyme, is active with L-serine, suggest that the active site T148 modulates the strict amino acid substrate specificity of ALAS. The rate of ALA release is also controlled by a hysteretic kinetic mechanism (observed as a lag in the ALA external aldimine formation progress curve), consistent with conformational changes governing the dissociation of ALA from ALAS. In Rhodobacter capsulatus ALAS, apart from coordinating the positioning of succinyl-CoA, N85 has an important role in regulating the opening of an active site channel. Here, we have mutated the analogous asparagine of murine erythroid ALAS to a histidine (N150H) and assessed its effects on catalysis through steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic studies. Quinonoid intermediate formation occurred with a significantly reduced rate for the N150H-catalyzed condensation of glycine with succinyl-CoA during a single turnover. When the same forward reaction was examined under multiple turnovers, the progress curve of the N150H reaction displayed a prolonged decay of the quinonoid intermediate into the steady-state, distinct from the steep decay in the wild-type ALAS reaction. This prolonged decay results from an accelerated transformation of the product, ALA, into the quinonoid intermediate during the reverse N150H-catalyzed reaction. In fact, while wild-type ALAS catalyzes the conversion of ALA into the quinonoid intermediate at a rate 6.3-fold lower than the formation of the same quinonoid intermediate from glycine and succinyl-CoA, the rate for the N150H-catalyzed reverse reaction is 1.7-fold higher than that of the forward reaction. We conclude that…
Subjects/Keywords 5-Aminolevulinate synthase; heme; pyridoxal 5’-phosphate; enzyme mechanisms; molten globule; Medicine and Health Sciences
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Country of Publication us
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Record ID oai:scholarcommons.usf.edu:etd-7075
Repository usf
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2019-01-18

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