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Title Investigating the Relationship between Binocular Disparity, Viewer Discomfort, and Depth Task Performance on Stereoscopic 3D Displays
Publication Date
Degree PhD
Discipline/Department Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
Degree Level doctoral
University/Publisher Wright State University
Abstract Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) displays offer the capability to enhance user performance on a variety of depth tasks. However, the benefit derived from viewing S3D depends in part on the magnitude of binocular disparity that is displayed. Surprisingly few studies have directly investigated the relationship between disparity and depth task performance. The studies that have been conducted suggest that a minimum amount of disparity (10-50 arc min) may be needed to improve performance over conditions in which no S3D is present, but it is unclear the extent to which performance might improve with increases in disparity beyond this range.From a human factors perspective, there are compelling reasons for using binocular disparities that are smaller than a strict geometrical interpretation of the scene would require (i.e., microstereopsis); one reason is to make the viewing experience more comfortable. This is important because S3D displays appear to cause a variety of simulator sickness-type problems for as many as 25-50% of users (including eye strain, headache, nausea, etc.). Preliminary evidence on the use of microstereopsis suggests that it does indeed result in a more comfortable and less fatiguing depth percept, particularly if binocular disparity is limited to a maximum of about 60 to 70 arc min (the One Degree Rule). But does microstereopsis also negate the performance benefits of stereopsis? How much can disparities be reduced before performance decrements are noticeable, and how comfortable are these disparities? Is there a stereo "sweet spot" in which both performance and comfort are high? And is this sweet-spot dependent on the particular depth task being tested?Results from a simple 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) virtual precision object alignment task showed that when averaged across participants, maximum performance was achieved when disparity was limited to +/- 80 or 100 arc min of disparity during a 30 minute session. Performance with S3D cues improved alignment accuracy by up to 80% compared to no stereo cues, though several participants received an inconsistent benefit, and in a few cases, S3D resulted in detrimental performance. The tested magnitudes of disparity limits were also generally comfortable, although a significant correlation between increasing disparity and decreasing comfort was confirmed. Several optometric measures (e.g. stereoacuity, fusion ranges) predicted performance, but not comfort, on S3D displays.Results from a more complex 5 DOF virtual precision object alignment task showed that the best performance was achieved with disparity limits from +/- 60 to 100 arc min of disparity. Again, the tested magnitudes of disparity limits were generally comfortable, and several optometric measurements predicted performance but not comfort. Overall, the results suggest that the One Degree Rule for stereoscopic disparity limits can be expanded for near-viewing desktop applications. The results also suggest that while camera separations resulting in microstereopsis showed improved performance over no-stereopsis…
Subjects/Keywords Psychology; Quantitative Psychology; Robotics; Robots; Scientific Imaging; Technology; Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Engineering; Experimental Psychology; Experiments; Medical Imaging; Ophthalmology; Optics; stereoscopy; binocular vision; phoria; vergence; fusion; optometry; 3D; depth perception; spatial vision; display design; virtual camera; teleoperation; microstereopsis; orthostereopsis; virtual environment; simulator sickness; viewer discomfort
Contributors Watamaniuk, Scott (Committee Chair)
Language en
Rights unrestricted ; This thesis or dissertation is protected by copyright: some rights reserved. It is licensed for use under a Creative Commons license. Specific terms and permissions are available from this document's record in the OhioLINK ETD Center. [Always confirm rights and permissions with the source record.]
Country of Publication us
Format application/pdf
Record ID oai:etd.ohiolink.edu:wright1400790668
Repository ohiolink
Date Indexed 2021-01-29
Grantor Wright State University

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…Evans, and Heynderickx (2011) cite a binocular status index developed by Evans that relies on a brief questionnaire and a rapid optometric screen (including one-eye cover tests, associated phoria, dissociated phoria, binocular suppression…

…for a Total score. The SSQ was administered electronically on a separate computer system. Phoria. Both lateral (horizontal) and vertical phorias are measurements of the alignment of the eyes in the absence of binocular stimulation of the…

…vergence system. Essentially, if the eyes do not have binocular stimuli that bring the foveae into alignment, phoria measures the resting state of this system and may be sensitive to manipulations that can stress or fatigue the eyes (see Appendix 2 for…

…relevant citations). Lateral phoria was measured at both near and far focal distances, while vertical phoria was measured only at the far distance. These measurements were taken before and after each experimental session to investigate any oculomotor…

…lateral phoria measurements were quickly obtained using their included Professional Performance test card set. Fusional Range. Another supplemental objective measure of eye strain/fatigue, fusional range was measured using the S3D display. A stimulus at…

…pre- and post-testing for each experimental session. Also, objective measures of eye-strain were taken pre- and post-testing: near and far lateral phoria (via the KeystoneView Telebinocular optometric system), and phoria range (via the…