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Author
Title Aerodynamics of Vocal Vibrato
URL
Publication Date
Degree PhD
Discipline/Department Communication Disorders
Degree Level doctoral
University/Publisher Bowling Green State University
Abstract Airflow vibrato is the fluctuation in average airflow while singing with vibrato. Understanding airflow vibrato relates to a deeper understanding of its importance to physiological, pedagogical, and clinical aspects. Two studies were performed to examine airflow vibrato. The subjects for Study 1 were four professional Western classical singers, and for Study 2 four highly trained amateur singers. Aerodynamic and acoustic measures were compared among vibrato, bleating (a primarily adductory gesture), and external epigastric pumping (EEP, a primarily subglottal pressure manipulation). Utterances included speaking (phonation and whisper) and singing (constant /a/ vowel, different pitches and loudness levels). Study 1 demonstrated how airflow vibrato compares with fundamental frequency (F0) and intensity vibrato. The correlation between rates of airflow and F0 vibrato was moderately strong. Mean airflow vibrato extents were larger for the female singers than for the male singers, and increased with pitch increase for all four singers. For the males, average airflow extent was 30 and 75 cm3/s for their lower and higher pitch, respectively, and for the females, 47 cm3/s and 94 cm3/s for their lower and higher pitch, respectively. Study 2 was undertaken to better understand sources of airflow vibrato. Airflow modulations were produced during singing with vibrato and also while bleating and with external epigastric pumping. Bleating had the fastest alteration rate (9.5-12 Hz), whereas the other types had similar rates (vibrato: 4.8-6.0 Hz; EEP: 6.0–7.5 Hz). During phonation (combining all conditions), bleating had the largest airflow modulation extents (on average 144 cm3/s, compared to 30 cm3/s for vibrato and 46 cm3/s for EEP). Overall results suggest that airflow vibrato typically leads F0 vibrato, and often has a more complex waveshape than F0 vibrato. Hypotheses generated from the study include: (1) A primarily subglottal pressure driven vibrato may provide relatively consistent but wide extents for both F0 and airflow vibrato. (2) A primarily glottal adduction driven vibrato may provide relatively low and inconsistent F0 vibrato extent, and high and inconsistent airflow extent. (3) A primarily CT driven vibrato may result in moderate to large F0 vibrato extent, and low airflow vibrato extent, with variable consistency.
Subjects/Keywords Health Sciences; Music; Speech Therapy; Airflow vibrato; Aerodynamics; Singing voice; Vibrato; Bleat; External epigastric pumping; Electroglottography; Intensity vibrato; Fundamental frequency vibrato; Western classical singing
Contributors Scherer, Ronald (Advisor)
Language en
Rights unrestricted ; This thesis or dissertation is protected by copyright: some rights reserved. It is licensed for use under a Creative Commons license. Specific terms and permissions are available from this document's record in the OhioLINK ETD Center. [Always confirm rights and permissions with the source record.]
Country of Publication us
Format application/pdf
Record ID oai:etd.ohiolink.edu:bgsu1499427478103556
Repository ohiolink
Date Indexed 2020-10-19
Grantor Bowling Green State University

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…12 ...................................................................................................... 12 Modulation Sources Resembling Vibrato Bleating External epigastric pumping…

…12 68 Airflow external epigastric pumping (EEP) rate mean values in Hz and standard deviations for speaking (phonation), speaking (whisper), and singing tasks in all four subjects (F1, F2, M1, M2) conditions…

…modulation extents of bleat, external epigastric pumping, and vibrato for all four subjects (F1, F2, M1, M2) ..... 81 23 Summary table of ANOVA results for airflow modulation extents .......................... 81 24 Post-hoc pairwise…

…26 83 Means (in semitones) and standard deviations of F0 modulation extents of bleat (B), external epigastric pumping (E), and vibrato (V) for speaking and singing tasks .... 86 27 Summary table of ANOVA…

…results for F0 modulation extents .................................. 86 28 Intensity modulation extents (dB) of bleat, external epigastric pumping, and vibrato 29 means and standard deviations of speaking (phonation and whisper)…

…100 37 Percent airflow values for bleat, external epigastric pumping, and vibrato ............. 100 38 Summary of ANOVA results for percent airflows ................................................... 101 39 Airflow, F0, and intensity values…

…undulations in the airflow, while subject F1 was producing lighter bleat at high pitch ........................................................................................ 64 30a Airflow and F0 modulations during external epigastric pumping while subject…

…F1 was phonating the vowel....................................................................................... 64 30b Airflow and intensity modulations during external epigastric pumping for the same condition given in Figure 30a…

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