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Title Whom We Shall Welcome: Immigration Reform During the Great Society
Publication Date
Degree PhD
Discipline/Department History
Degree Level doctoral
University/Publisher Bowling Green State University
Abstract This work examines the economic debate over the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 and the end of the bracero program. Although the United States was still experiencing the post-World War II economic boom in the 1960's, the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson administrations became increasingly concerned with poverty. Through the assistance of a friendly Congress, Kennedy and Johnson signed legislation designed to provide opportunities for employment for the nation's impoverished and unemployed. As unemployment numbers dropped, geographical pockets of unemployment remained high. Yet, business needs for skilled workers persisted. Economic planners and policymakers viewed immigration as a means to meet business needs and strengthen the American economy by removing nation-based quotas and favoring occupational skills and innovation in the immigration code. However, reform detractors successfully altered the final wording of the bill away from its initial intentions, putting more emphasis on family reunification and unintentionally opening immigration increasingly to Latin America and Asia. Despite Congress's altering of the bill and the subsequent unintended consequences, my dissertation seeks to reorient the focus of the study of this piece of legislation on what Congress initially intended. By investigating War on Poverty legislation, I argue that policymakers viewed immigration reform in the 1960's as a means to further the economic planning of this decade. By studying these intentions, I hope to shed light on the economic debate surrounding immigration reform today.
Subjects/Keywords American History; History; Labor Economics; Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965; Hart-Celler Act; Bracero Program; War on Poverty; Great Society; Immigration Policy; McCarran-Walter Act; Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952; Employment Policy; Poverty Policy
Contributors Challú, Amílcar (Advisor)
Language en
Rights unrestricted ; This thesis or dissertation is protected by copyright: all rights reserved. It may not be copied or redistributed beyond the terms of applicable copyright laws.
Country of Publication us
Format application/pdf
Record ID oai:etd.ohiolink.edu:bgsu1404673565
Repository ohiolink
Date Indexed 2020-10-19
Grantor Bowling Green State University

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…the 1960s, policymakers attempted to put an end to this conundrum through terminating the bracero program and reforming the immigration code. Combining the end of this temporary labor importation system with the passage of the (HartCeller)…

…the demise of the bracero program. It 3 Ibid. 3 focuses on the evolution of War on Poverty planning during the Lyndon B. Johnson administration, and how this connects to congressional debate over the demise of the bracero program and the passage of…

…Poverty, the INA of 1965, and the termination of the bracero program, a deeper understanding emerges that these economic assumptions unquestionably affected the way that congressmen and the administration constructed their arguments for immigration reform…

…provide an analysis of why some farmers aimed to keep the bracero program active, and why policymakers wanted to 9 see its end. Although farmers that benefit from bracero labor understandably had an interest in keeping the system active, not all farmers…

…By the time the bracero program came under increased opposition in the 1960s, the farm industry only required around 4 million laborers or farmers. Bracero workers significantly contributed to the farm population throughout the 1950s, peaking with the…

…University Press, 2012); Kitty Calavita, Inside the State: The Bracero Program, Immigration, and the I.N.S. (New York: Routledge, 1992), 218. 10 bias in the immigration code. This dissertation hopes to explore this preference for skills and…

…the passage of the INA of 1965, I do believe that investigating the War on Poverty and the bracero program in the 1960s opens new ways to look at this act’s passage.12 Otis Graham argues that policymakers in the 1960s were wrapped up in civil rights…

…that remained in the books just long enough for the 88th (1963-1965) and 89th (1965-1967) Congress to overturn. First, the 82nd Congress codified the bracero program, creating Public Law 78. Then, it passed the INA of 1952. The…