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Title The Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds from Synthetic Cathinone Derivatives for the Development of Odor Mimic Training Aids
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Publication Date
Degree PhD
Discipline/Department Chemistry
Degree Level doctoral
University/Publisher Florida International University
Abstract Methylone, Ethylone, Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) collectively referred to as bath salts are a new trend of illicit substances known as synthetic cathinones. Designed by chemically modifying the core structure of the compound cathinone, synthetic cathinones became prevalent within the United States around the mid-2000s. As a cheap and less controlled alternative to methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), it has become heavily abused, prompting emergency scheduling by federal regulators. Although regulations have been placed to halt incoming traffic of these drugs, lack of ground efforts still leave a large percentage of bath salts available. This study is two-fold, as it seeks to develop an extraction method for the development of Volatile Organic Compound profiles associated with various synthetic cathinones; and also determine the odorant used for canine recognition. The initial goal of this dissertation was to develop an extraction method to characterize various cathinone derivatives. The present study concluded that by employing a Polydimethylsiloxane Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) coated fiber along with complimentary soft ionization techniques, the volatile components and all parent drugs could be identified within sixteen synthetic cathinone cases. The second goal of the dissertation was to assess and enhance the detection capabilities of narcotic detection teams. Canine field detection is routinely used to stop the increasing distribution influx of drugs into the United States that go undetected by standard procedures currently employed. Although currently canines can detect a multitude of drugs including heroin, cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine; this study revealed that more than ten canine teams (throughout south Florida) were not able to detect the presence of synthetic cathinones with current training material. While concerns have grown concerning the safety and reliability of canines being trained on various illicit substances, this research aimed to develop a safe, efficient, controlled alternative to training any canine for detection in the form of a Controlled Mimic Permeation System (COMPS). Field examination concluded that 3,4-methylenedioxypriophenone was the odorant responsible for the canine recognition of the cathinone derivative odor. Therefore a mimic training aid was developed and deployed within the field to enhance the detection capabilities of various canine teams.
Subjects/Keywords synthetic cathinones; bath salts; synthetic drugs; headspace; odor profile; SPME; drug detection; canine; Controlled Odor Mimic Permeation System; mimic training aids; Analytical Chemistry; Chemistry
Contributors Kenneth G. Furton; Norman Munroe; John Berry; Watson Lees; Anthony DeCaprio
Country of Publication us
Record ID oai:digitalcommons.fiu.edu:etd-4336
Repository fiu
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2020-01-06
Created Date 2017-06-01 07:00:00

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…2.2 Khat ...................................................................................................................... 9 2.3 Bath Salts and its History ................................................................................... 13…

…79 4.4 Imprinting of Canines to Detect Illicit Bath Salts .............................................. 81 4.4.1 Materials ..................................................................................................... 82 4.4.2…

…of Cases Called into the American Association of Poison Center with Questions in Regards to the Exposure of Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts)34…

…17 Figure 5. The Packaging of Bath Salts Sold in Headshops (Left)41 and the Appearance of the Drug which May be Housed in These Packages (Right) ........................................ 18 Figure 6. The Phases of Neurochemistry…

…suffocation. Investigations concluded by recovering 500 milligrams of bath salts found in his home, car, and front pocket3,4. The death of a promising athlete and a respected family asked questions about the type of potent drug that could result in such dire…

…Eugene’s incident quickly became famed as the “Walking dead” and “Miami zombie”. The assumed cause of such an event was said to be a as result of consuming a new synthetic drug that was quickly taking over the streets. The new drug was called “bath salts

…Encountered numerous times in the field before, officers recalled the behavior of Eugene, citing he showed classic signs of someone on bath salts. However, The MiamiDade Medical Examiner’s office only detected components of marijuana in the biological sample…

…questions circulated about how an individual displaying signs consistent with the consumption of bath salts was not detected; Dr. Bruce Goldberger was able to shed some light. A professor and Director of Toxicology at The University of Florida, Dr…

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