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Title Critical Node Analysis for Water Distribution System Using Flow Distribution
URL
Publication Date
Degree MS
Discipline/Department Civil and Environmental Engineering
Degree Level masters
University/Publisher Cal Poly
Abstract The expansive nature of water distribution system makes them susceptible to threats such as natural disasters and man-made destructions. Vulnerability assessment research efforts have increased since the passing of “Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act” in 2002 to harden WDS. This study aimed to develop a method that locates critical nodes without hydraulic analysis of every failure scenario, applicable for any size WDS, incorporates critical infrastructure, and capable of verifying method accuracy. The Flow Distribution method is the application of the gravity model, typically used to predict traffic flows in transportation engineering, to a distribution system. Flow distribution predicts the amount of demand and population that would be affected if any node in the system were disabled by solving for the distribution of each node’s outflow. Flow Distribution is applied to the hypothetical city, Anytown, USA using the computer simulation program WaterCAD to model two different disaster scenarios. Results were verified by analyzing sixteen failure scenarios (one for each node) to measure the actual demand and population effect, which was then compared to the nodes predicted by Flow Distribution. Flow Distribution predicted the critical nodes with 70% accuracy and can still be improved with future work.
Subjects/Keywords Water distribution system; vulnerability assessment; critical node analysis; gravity model; flow distribution
Contributors Shihka Rahman
Country of Publication us
Record ID oai:digitalcommons.calpoly.edu:theses-1764
Repository calpoly
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2020-04-26
Created Date 2012-05-01 07:00:00

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…the inflows at each node were completely mixed meaning the flow to meet the demand of a supply node was a percentage of each connected pipe’s flow. This analysis was performed on a simple network and the critical pipes were identified. The accuracy of…

…x28;GIS). Optimal locations for monitoring equipment were found by implementing scoring matrices for node variables, population density, and proximity to critical infrastructure (hospitals and schools). The node variables matrix…

…in detail. 17 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY Present study aimed at developing a method that would identify critical nodes in a water distribution system. An integral part of identifying critical nodes is determining how the outflow of each node is…

…the standard α factor of two would produce results accurate enough to determine if Flow Distribution is suitable to determine critical nodes in a distribution system. The calibration of α would correlate the node outflows that Flow Distribution…

…46 Table 9: Top Critical Nodes Predicted by Flow Distribution ........................................................ 54 Table 10: Results from Disaster Scenario 1…

…INTRODUCTION The United States’ economy and human development are powered by receiving water through distribution systems, which was identified by the President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure as one of the eight key infrastructures (Qiao et at…

…utilize available resources to protect the weakest links and/ or high-risk areas. Vulnerability assessments are a critical component in the preparation and evaluation of emergency management plan for protection of WDS. Vulnerability, for this study, refers…

…a new method that can be applied to a vulnerability assessment with four main objectives. The first objective was to develop method that accurately identified critical nodes and/or pipes in a distribution system without performing hydraulic analysis…

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