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Title To Make Iron of Iron : A Comprehensive Analytical Study of Spade Shaped Iron Bars
Publication Date
Discipline/Department Archaeological Research Laboratory
University/Publisher Stockholm University
Abstract This thesis aims to provide adequate analytical information on the spade shaped iron bars of Norrland and central Sweden. While their significance has been thoroughly debated for decades, analytical research on them has been confined to cases of single artefacts or theoretical interpretations of their value, meaning and origin. In this study a comprehensive approach is taken into consideration. Based on X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and metallographical analysis this thesis seeks to facilitate new interpretations on quality, production centres and usage based on analytical results. Aiming to settle some of the long lasting questions regarding the artefacts while producing results which can further the discussion by raising new questions, previously unasked.
Subjects/Keywords Archaeological Science; Archaeometallurgy; Spade Shaped Iron Bars; X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF); Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Metallography; Swedish Archaeology; Archaeology in Norrland; Scandinavian Iron Age; Nordic Iron Age; Roman Iron Age; Migration Period; Vendel Period; Prehistoric Metallurgy; Slag; Iron Bar; Currency Bar; Bloomery; Bloom Iron; Bog Iron; Limonite; Mineral Iron Ores; Hematite; Magnetite Phosphoric Iron/Steel; Prehistoric Steel; Ferrite; Pearlite; Nickel; Cobalt; Phosphorus; Arsenic; Magnesium; Sulfur; Manganese; Norrland; Middle Norrland; Uppland; Gästrikland; Hälsingland; Medelpad; Jämtland; Södermanland; Helgö; Torsåker; Gåcksätter; Alborga; Offerdal; Selånger; Villberga; Arbrå; Laborativ Arkeologi; Arkeometallurgi; Spadformiga Ämnesjärn; Röntgenfluorescens (XRF); Svepelektronmikroskop (SEM); Metallografi; Svensk Arkeologi; Norrländsk Arkeologi; Förnnordisk Arkeologi; Skandinavisk Järnålder; Nordisk Järnålder; Fornnordisk Järnålder; Romersk Järnålder; Folkvandringstiden; Vendeltiden; Forhistorisk Metallurgi; Slaget; Ämnesjärn; Blästerugn; Blästa; Myrmalm; Sjömalm; Limonit; Bergmalm; Hematit; Magnetit; Fosforisk Järn/Stål; Förhistorisk Stål; Ferrit; Pearlit; Nickel; Kobolt; Fosfor; Arsen; Magnesium; Svavel; Mangan; Norrland; Mellannorrland; Uppland; Gästrikland; Hälsingland; Medelpad; Jämtland; Södermanland; Helgö; Torsåker; Gåcksätter; Alborga; Offerdal; Selånger; Villberga; Arbrå; Archaeology; Arkeologi
Language en
Country of Publication se
Record ID oai:DiVA.org:su-145694
Repository diva
Date Indexed 2020-01-03

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…in the provinces along Norrland's coast (Hlsingland, Medelpad and ngermanland) must have taken place. Longhouse-estates 11 like Gene, ngermanland and the Migration Period burial mounds of Hgom, demonstrate that one way or another…

…Northern provinces of Medelpad and ngermanland. Having collected the ore, it was left to dry, after which point it was roasted. Such roasting places are seldom found, something which might be an indicator that the roasting could have taken place in an open…

…iron bars unearthed in hoards in Jmtland would amount for just a 0.009% of the local production (Id: 274). Having said that, these are the numbers for just Jmtland. Medelpad and ngermanland might have been importers of iron from Jmtland…

…shaped iron bars, dated based on their stratigraphical horizon to ca 350–450 A.D. (Ramqvist 1992:196). A similar cauldron this time covering spade shaped iron bars was unearthed in the Högom burial ground, Medelpad. This too, Ramqvist dated to…