Full Record

New Search | Similar Records

Author
Title The effects of repetitive head impacts on neuroimaging and biomarkers in college athletes
URL
Publication Date
Date Accessioned
Degree MS
Discipline/Department Physician Assistant Program
Degree Level masters
University/Publisher Boston University
Abstract Football safety has increased over time, in part due to improvements in equipment and body mechanics, but there are still inherent risks involved, including exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI). Significant head impacts can result in a constellation of symptoms including nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and amnesia, which typically assist in the diagnosis of concussion. However, it has been shown that subconcussive impacts may result in microstructural changes and physiological alterations in the brain. This is particularly concerning because athletes may be undergoing changes in the brain in the absence of outwardly visible symptoms. Poorer neurologic outcomes later in life have been associated with cumulative exposure rather than number of diagnosed concussions. Accelerometers installed in helmets have shown that college football players may receive up to 1,850 head impacts throughout the course of one season. The concussion rate is obviously much lower, indicating there are a high number of head impacts per diagnosed concussion. Axons are especially susceptible to damage from RHI because of their extension throughout the nervous system. The subtle changes thought to result from RHI are not easy to measure, but several modalities have been proposed. These include diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), plasma tau protein, and King-Devick testing. The proposed study will look to quantify cumulative head impact exposure in college football players prior to the start of a season and see if this has any impact on the variables. They will then participate in one season of football wearing helmet accelerometers to measure the number of head impacts sustained. Changes in the variables will be compared to non-contact sport college athletes. Data will be analyzed to determine if number of head impacts correlates with changes in variables and if prior head impact exposure has any effect on these changes. Data obtained from this study will have significant implications in the field of head injury. It may strengthen the use of several markers of brain injury that could be utilized in the future. Additionally, the effects of cumulative head impact exposure and one season of head impacts will be thoroughly examined. This information can be provided to trainers, coaches, and athletes to further improve football safety.
Subjects/Keywords Neurosciences; Accelerometer; Chronic traumatic encephalopathy; Concussion; Repetitive head impacts; Traumatic brain injury; Tau protein
Language en
Country of Publication us
Record ID handle:2144/19183
Repository bu
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2019-03-19
Issued Date 2016-01-01 00:00:00

Sample Search Hits | Sample Images | Cited Works

…N-methyl-D-aspartate PET……………………………………………..…………..Positron emission tomography RHI……………………………………………….……………….Repetitive head impacts TBI………………………………………………….………………Traumatic brain injury   ix     INTRODUCTION Background It has been estimated…

…accurately and effectively diagnose brain injury. The methods used to diagnose concussions are vague and subjective. Additionally, minimal data exists looking at risk factors for the deleterious effects of RHI. Some postulations include type of head impact…

…prone to absorbing hits to the head, presented in greater than 50% of fighters, and seemed to be an occupational hazard specific to boxing rather than other forms of cerebral injury.18 Since that time, evidence of neurodegeneration has been found in…

…attributed to the mechanics of football (i.e. head injury, spine fracture), in 2013.2 These all occurred in high school athletes, and no fatalities were reported in youth, college, or professional football. This represents a continuing downward…

Head Impacts While much of the focus of brain injury has consisted of concussion research, several studies have shown changes in DTI, fMRI, and cognitive testing in athletes exposed to RHI but with no clinically diagnosed concussion.9,12,24 One issue is…

…at brain injury and have distinct physical manifestations, this uncertainty in diagnosis and reporting of concussions suggests it may be prudent to focus on cumulative head impact exposure. Several studies have showed associations with number of years…

…individual that sustains a brain injury. Recent studies have demonstrated an increase in tau in the plasma of athletes exposed to repetitive head impacts, including Olympic boxers and concussed ice hockey players,15,16 which is a promising biomarker that…

…abnormalities in those exposed to repetitive head impacts, such as cavum septum pellucidum, enlargement of the ventricles, and atrophy of the cerebral cortex.19 However, this method is ineffective at visualizing diffuse axonal injury. Several forms of MRI may be…

.