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Title X-ray microscope performance enhancement through control architecture change
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Publication Date
Date Accessioned
Degree MS
Discipline/Department 0133
Degree Level thesis
University/Publisher University of Illinois – Urbana-Champaign
Abstract The goal of this thesis is to apply control algorithms to improve the performance of nanopositioning devices used on the beamline in Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A prototype device, better known as the Early User Instrument (EUI) was the subject of this work. It consists of X-ray optics stage group that focuses the X-ray beam as a source-size-limited spot onto a sample held on the sample stage group. The controller algorithms that are used should provide the closed-loop with robust stability, large bandwidth, high resolution, disturbance rejection and noise attenuation. Conveniently, the field of scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) have already flourished on this aspect of controller algorithms proven to give desired closed-loop properties. Controller algorithms such as Proportional Integral Derivative (PID), Glover-McFarlane H-infinty algorithm, and 1DOF H-infinty controller were designed and implemented on the EUI system. The controller hardware used for implementation is National Instruments (NI) CompactRIO hardware that consists of a real-time controller, a FPGA built into the hardware chassis, analog I/O modules, and digital I/O modules. NI LabVIEW, the dedicated software to the NI hardware, was used to represent the discrete controllers as biquads structures that ran in the FPGA as a part of the closed-loop . The largest closed-loop bandwidth achieved is of 65 Hz through the 1DOF H-infinty controller and is a 171% improvement over the traditional PID controller. Highest closed- loop resolution achieved by the EUI with a 50 Hz bandwidth 1DOF H-infinty controller is 1.4 nanometers, which is a 180% improvement over the open loop resolution of 7 nanometers.
Subjects/Keywords control; Control Architecture; Advanced Photon Source (APS); Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); control algorithms; nanopositioning; nanopositioning devices; Early User Instrument (EUI); X-ray; optics; robust stability; bandwidth; resolution; disturbance rejection; noise attenuation; scanning probe microscope (SPM); closed-loop properties; Proportional Integral Derivative (PID); Glover-McFarlane h-infinity algorithm; 1DOF h-infinity controller; h-infinity; Glover-McFarlane controller; Keith Glover; Duncan McFarlane; controller; controller implementation; National Instruments (NI); CompactRIO; real-time controller; Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA); LabVIEW; biquads structures; closed-loop bandwidth; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Office of Science; DE-AC02-06CH11357; DE-SC0004283; Cross Power Spectral Density (CPSD); Power Spectral Density (PSD); Degree Of Freedom (DOF); Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT); Hardware Description language (HDL); High-Level Synthesis (HLS); Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN); In Situ Nanoprobe (ISN); Laser Doppler Displacement Meter (LDDM); Physik Instrumente (PI); Reconfigurable Input/Output (RIO); Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline; full-field imaging microscopy; fluorescence mapping; nanodiffraction; transmission imaging; reliability and repeatability of positioning systems; modeling uncertainties; insensitive modeling uncertainties; quantifying trade-offs; trade-offs; design flexibility; design methodology; feedforward; feedback; performance objectives; robustness; Advanced Photon Source (APS) user; beamline scientist; imaging resolution and bandwidth; imaging resolution; nanoprobe; model fitting; curve fitting; model reduction; feedback controllers; X-ray nanoprobe instrument; third-generation synchrotron radiation source; zone plate optics; zone plate; flexure stages; piezoelectric actuators stacks; flexure; Piezoelectric; high-stiffness stages; high-resolution weak-link stages; piezoelectric-transducer; sub-nanometer resolution; subnanometer; optical heterodyning; heterodyning; Optodyne; frequency-shifted laser beam; PID controller; digital to analog converter (DAC); analog input modules; digital input modules; analog output modules; cRIO-9118; Virtex-5; Virtex-5 LX110 FPGA chassis; NI-9223; NI-9402; NI-9263; System Identification; Identification; black-box identification; parametric model; non-parametric model; welch; pwelch; tfestimate; invfreqs; time domain data; band-limited uniform Gaussian white noise; band-limited; white noise; resonant peak; Balance Realization; minimal realization; controllability; observability; Experimental Frequency response; transfer function; Hankel singular values; Hankel norm; balanced truncation; noise histogram; Open Loop Resolution; closed Loop Resolution; Simulink simulation; LabVIEW simulation; discrete controller; continuous controllers; discrete; Tustin; tustins method; discretization; complementary sensitivity transfer function; sensitivity transfer function; robust stabilization; coprime factorization; Bezout identity; Bezout; stability margin; algebraic Riccati equation; Riccati equation; sub-optimal; suboptimal; sub-optimal controller; optimal controller; mixed-sensitivity optimization; sensitivity optimization; generalized framework; generalized controller framework; stabilizing controller; closed-loop objectives; generalized plant; nominal plant; linear fractional transformation; weighting transfer functions; weighted sensitivity; hinfsyn; bode integral law; waterbed effect; second waterbed formula; Skogestad; Poslethwaite; sensitivity weighting; sensitivity weighting transfer function; nanopositioner; nanopositioning device; nanopositioning system; second order sections; ASPE 28th Annual Meeting; American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE); Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation; Synchrotron; Nanoprobe Instrument
Contributors Salapaka, Srinivasa M. (advisor); Preissner, Curt (advisor)
Language en
Rights Copyright 2013 Sheikh Mashrafi
Country of Publication us
Record ID handle:2142/46671
Repository uiuc
Date Indexed 2018-11-19
Grantor University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Issued Date 2014-01-16 17:58:33

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…EUI system is excited with band-limited uniform Gaussian white noise of a specific amplitude. A band-limited Gaussian white noise from 0 to 12.5 kHz was chosen so as to not excite the system with any higher frequency components. High 9 frequency

…experimental closed-loop plant model and open loop plant model are closely matched. The resonance peaks show that both plants have resonant peak at same frequency. And also the DC value of both plants are also the same. The low frequency and the high frequency

…DOF Degree Of Freedom DTFT Discrete-Time Fourier Transform EUI Early User Instrument FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array HDL Hardware Description Language HLS High-Level Synthesis HXN Hard X-ray Nanoprobe ISN In Situ Nanoprobe LDDM…

…EUI achieved a source-size-limited focal spot of 70 nm [9]. In this thesis, we present a framework to model, analyze, and control precision positioning stages. The main goals of the control design are to achieve high position tracking…

…does not offer flexibility in design, robust stability property, high bandwidth and high resolution. This work exploits the control design tools developed for positioning systems in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and applies them to…

…EUI, the layout of closedloop system with the new NI hardware, system identification of the fine Y-stage, model fitting, and model reduction are given in the chapter-2. Chapter-3 showcases the pure feedback controllers as PID, Glover-McFarlane H…

…a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that generates high-brilliance x-ray beams and provides powerful tools for basic science and applied research in the fields of physics, life science, materials science, environmental science, and…

…chemistry. EUI is the acting testbed for design and implementation of controllers to achieve larger bandwidth, higher resolution, disturbance rejection and noise attenuation. Figure 2.1: A 3D model of the EUI, a prototype nanoprobe with high-resolution weak…

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