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Title Modulating Peripersonal and Extrapersonal Reach Space: A Developmental Perspective
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Publication Date
Date Accessioned
Degree PhD
Discipline/Department Kinesiology
Degree Level doctoral
University/Publisher Texas A&M University
Abstract The primary intent of this study was to gain insight into the developmental nature of spatial perception and representation. More specifically, the work presented here examined 1) the age-related ability to modulate peri- and extrapersonal space via hand and tool use, 2) the adjustment period associated with extending and retracting spaces, and 3) the effect of tool length on modulation of space. Seventy children representing age groups 7-, 9-, 11 years and adults were presented with two experiments using an estimation of reach paradigm involving hand and tool conditions and a switch-block of the opposite condition. Experiment 1 tested Hand and Tool (20cm length) estimation and found a significant effect for Age, Space, and an Age x Space interaction (ps <.05). Both children and adults were less accurate in extrapersonal space, indicating an overestimation bias. Interestingly, the adjustment period during the switch-block condition was immediate and similar across age. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 with the exception of using a 40cm length tool. Results of 55 participants also revealed a difference in estimation responses between Age groups (p <.05); 7- and 9-year-olds were similar and less accurate than adults, and 11-year-olds were not different from any other age group. There was also a difference in Space (p <.05), revealing that participants underestimated their reaching abilities with higher accuracy in extrapersonal space. Interestingly, whereas participants overall overestimated with the 20cm tool, they tended to underestimate while using the 40cm tool. This finding suggests that participants were less confident when presented with a longer tool, even though the adjustment period with both tool lengths was similar. Considered together, these results hint that: (1) children as young as 6 years of age are capable of re-scaling peripersonal space via tool use in the context of estimation reach, (2) the adjustment period associated with extending and retracting spaces is immediate rather than gradual, and (3) tool length may influence confidence of participants, shifting the general direction of error from overestimation with a 20cm tool to underestimation with a 40cm tool.
Subjects/Keywords tool; peripersonal; extrapersonal; space; children; reach
Contributors Gabbard, Carl P. (advisor); Wright, David (committee member); Buchanan, John (committee member); Wilcox, Teresa (committee member)
Language en
Country of Publication us
Record ID handle:1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2011-08-9857
Repository tamu
Date Indexed 2020-08-12
Grantor Texas A&M University
Issued Date 2012-10-19 00:00:00

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…the body and of the space surrounding the body; that is, peripersonal and extrapersonal space. Peripersonal (near) space is behaviorally defined as the space within the hand-reaching distance, whereas extrapersonal (far) space

…Underscoring the intent of the present study is the observation that the developmental course and distinction between peripersonal space and extrapersonal space remains largely unexplored (Bremner, Holmes, & Spence, 2008). Part of the motivation for…

…2007; Gabbard, Cordova, & Lee, 2009b). More precisely, when viewing reaching space as peripersonal (within grasp) and extrapersonal (beyond reach), children display a distinct „body-scaling‟ problem in extrapersonal space; a…

…problem not shown in adults. While we found no studies exploring children‟s modulation of space by tool use, a large body of literature suggests that tool use extends peripersonal space in adults. We argue that if children have the same ability to modulate…

…was based on evidence suggesting that tool use result in an expansion of the body schema and peripersonal space. The following is a brief background of the relevant areas of research associated with this dissertation, namely: Peripersonal and…

…extrapersonal space, tool use, and a developmental perspective, respectively. 3 Peripersonal and Extrapersonal Space Human beings represent space surrounding them while performing everyday activities, and a successful completion of those activities depend on…

…of the arm, named extrapersonal space, and the space immediately surrounding the body, known as peripersonal space. Closely associated with the notion of space representation are the findings that there are specialized visual neurons coded for the…

…somatosensory stimulations, with a higher activity for closer (peripersonal) than farther visual stimuli. In humans, a functionally homologous coding 4 of peripersonal space is largely supported by behavioral studies, showing stronger visual–tactile…

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