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Title Comparison of Etomidate, Benzocaine, and MS222 Anesthesia with and without Subsequent Flunixin Meglumine Analgesia in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus Laevis)
Publication Date
Date Accessioned
Degree MS
Discipline/Department Biomedical Sciences
Degree Level masters
University/Publisher Texas A&M University
Abstract Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research. In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis after their immersion in 3 doses of etomidate (15, 22.5, and 30 mg/L) and in 3 doses of benzocaine (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) compared with the ‘gold standard,’ tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222; 2 g/L). We then chose an optimal dose for each alternative anesthetic according to induction time, duration of surgical plane, and time to complete recovery. The optimal etomidate and benzocaine doses (22.5 mg/L and 0.1%, respectively) as well as the MS222 dose were then used to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia, with the addition of flunixin meglumine (25 or 50 mg/kg) administered in the dorsal lymph sac at the completion of mock oocyte harvest. Efficacy of the analgesic was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h postoperatively by using acetic acid testing (AAT). Histology of the liver, kidney, and tissues surrounding the dorsal lymph sac was performed at day 3, 14, and 28 in each group of animals. Mild to moderate myocyte degeneration and necrosis were present in tissues surrounding the dorsal lymph sac at both flunixin meglumine doses after etomidate and benzocaine anesthesia. In addition, the 50-mg/kg dose of flunixin meglumine resulted in the death of 5 of the 12 frogs within 24 h, despite an otherwise uneventful anesthetic recovery. In conclusion, benzocaine and etomidate offer alternative anesthetic regimens, according to typical requirements for an anesthetic event. Flunixin meglumine at the 25-mg/ kg dose provided analgesic relief at the latest time point during etomidate dosage and at all time points during benzocaine dosage, but further characterization is warranted regarding long-term or repeated analgesic administration.
Subjects/Keywords Xenopus; MS222; Flunixin Meglumine; Etomidate; Benzocaine
Contributors Vemulapalli, Tracy (advisor); Baetge, Courtney (advisor); Elliott, James (committee member); Gresham, Vincent (committee member)
Language en
Country of Publication us
Record ID handle:1969.1/174300
Repository tamu
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2020-08-12
Grantor Texas A & M University
Issued Date 2018-08-20 00:00:00

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…BENZOCAINE, AND MS222 ANESTHESIA WITH AND WITHOUT SUBSEQUENT FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE ANALGESIA IN AFRICAN CLAWED FROGS (XENOPUS LAEVIS)* II. 1. Background African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) are a common amphibian species in the research…

…various disadvantages, including respiratory irritation in personnel handling the *Reprinted with permission from “Comparison of Etomidate, Benzocaine, and MS222 Anesthesia with and without Subsequent Flunixin Meglumine Analgesia in African Clawed Frogs…

…animals, especially given their increasing numbers in the research setting.13 Although an extensive list of analgesic choices exists, including drugs such as morphine, butorphanol, and buprenorphine, flunixin meglumine may provide better analgesia and has…

…the additional benefit of being a nonscheduled substance.7,31 Flunixin meglumine (trade name Banamine), is a NSAID that is most often used in agricultural animals. A dose of 25 mg/kg administered in the dorsal lymph sac of X. laevis achieved…

…buffered solutions (particularly skin irritation and inflammation) is key to achieving this goal. The second goal was to further 7 characterize the analgesic properties of flunixin meglumine administered to Xenopus frogs at increased dosages and…

…optimal doses of each anesthetic as determined in the first experiment and were used to further characterize flunixin meglumine analgesia. Each frog underwent a single anesthetic event, which included the creation of a surgical incision in the lower…

…water system. II 2. 4.Flunixin meglumine administration For the second portion of the experiment, flunixin meglumine (25 or 50 mg/kg) was administered into the right dorsal lymph sac by using a 22-gauge needle immediately after the completion…

…of surgery. This portion of the experiment involved 5 groups (n = 6 frogs per group), which received either MS222 or etomidate (22.5 mg/L) with either 25 or 50 mg/kg of flunixin meglumine or 0.1% benzocaine with 25 mg/kg of…