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Title Comparison of Etomidate, Benzocaine, and MS222 Anesthesia with and without Subsequent Flunixin Meglumine Analgesia in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus Laevis)
Publication Date
Date Accessioned
Degree MS
Discipline/Department Biomedical Sciences
Degree Level masters
University/Publisher Texas A&M University
Abstract Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research. In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis after their immersion in 3 doses of etomidate (15, 22.5, and 30 mg/L) and in 3 doses of benzocaine (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) compared with the ‘gold standard,’ tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222; 2 g/L). We then chose an optimal dose for each alternative anesthetic according to induction time, duration of surgical plane, and time to complete recovery. The optimal etomidate and benzocaine doses (22.5 mg/L and 0.1%, respectively) as well as the MS222 dose were then used to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia, with the addition of flunixin meglumine (25 or 50 mg/kg) administered in the dorsal lymph sac at the completion of mock oocyte harvest. Efficacy of the analgesic was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h postoperatively by using acetic acid testing (AAT). Histology of the liver, kidney, and tissues surrounding the dorsal lymph sac was performed at day 3, 14, and 28 in each group of animals. Mild to moderate myocyte degeneration and necrosis were present in tissues surrounding the dorsal lymph sac at both flunixin meglumine doses after etomidate and benzocaine anesthesia. In addition, the 50-mg/kg dose of flunixin meglumine resulted in the death of 5 of the 12 frogs within 24 h, despite an otherwise uneventful anesthetic recovery. In conclusion, benzocaine and etomidate offer alternative anesthetic regimens, according to typical requirements for an anesthetic event. Flunixin meglumine at the 25-mg/ kg dose provided analgesic relief at the latest time point during etomidate dosage and at all time points during benzocaine dosage, but further characterization is warranted regarding long-term or repeated analgesic administration.
Subjects/Keywords Xenopus; MS222; Flunixin Meglumine; Etomidate; Benzocaine
Contributors Vemulapalli, Tracy (advisor); Baetge, Courtney (advisor); Elliott, James (committee member); Gresham, Vincent (committee member)
Language en
Country of Publication us
Record ID handle:1969.1/174300
Repository tamu
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2020-08-12
Grantor Texas A & M University
Issued Date 2018-08-20 00:00:00

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…Rosenbaum MD. 2015. Biology and diseases of amphibians, Chapter 18, p 931–965. In: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Otto G, Prichett-Corning KR, Whary MT. Laboratory animal medicine, 3rd ed. San Diego (CA): Elsevier. 4 CHAPTER II COMPARISON OF ETOMIDATE

…various disadvantages, including respiratory irritation in personnel handling the *Reprinted with permission from “Comparison of Etomidate, Benzocaine, and MS222 Anesthesia with and without Subsequent Flunixin Meglumine Analgesia in African Clawed Frogs…

…observed.30 Propofol is unsafe to use in Xenopus,14,15,40 and α2 agonists such as medetomidine and dexmedetomidine are ineffective in this species.11,40 Other anesthetic options to explore in Xenopus include drugs such as etomidate, benzocaine in solution…

…and alfaxalone. Etomidate, an imidazole-derivative anesthetic and hypnotic, has been used for anesthesia of Xenopus tadpoles28 and in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).8 Benzocaine in solution has been used in field studies…

etomidate or benzocaine produce similar anesthetic events to those of MS222 in African clawed frogs. Providing alternative anesthetic regimens that avoid the occupational health and safety risks of MS222 and the patient risks associated with incorrectly…

…when used in combination with etomidate, benzocaine, or MS222. In addition, we used histology to examine whether these anesthetic regimens were associated with significant pathology. II. 2. Materials and Methods II. 2.1 Animals All work was performed on…

…of the study, 36 frogs (6 per group) were immersed in the following doses of benzocaine (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%) and etomidate (15, 22.5, 30 mg/L) to determine the optimal anesthetic dose to obtain an adequate surgical anesthetic…

…irritation before being dissolved in tank water.36 Benzocaine (Sigma Aldrich) was weighed in its solid form and then dissolved in 100% ethyl alcohol before being diluted in tank water to its final concentrations.38 9 Etomidate (2 mg/mL…