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Title Molecular Beam Epitaxy of InAs, GaSb, AlSb Structures for Interband Cascade Devices
Publication Date
Date Accessioned
Degree PhD
Degree Level doctoral
University/Publisher University of Oklahoma
Abstract The interband cascade (IC) family of devices has been extended beyond mid-infrared lasers to include photovoltaic (PV) and photodetector (PD) devices. These devices utilize the transition between conduction and valence bands for photon emission or absorption in the infrared region. The cascade structure recycles electrons to generate or collect multiple photons per electron. Epitaxial growths of the device structures are challenging because they consist of hundreds of quantum wells and require atomic layer precision in thickness control. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was used to grow these structures with InAs, GaSb, AlSb, and their alloys on InAs or GaSb substrates. IC laser structures with InAs plasmon cladding layers were grown on InAs substrates for wavelengths greater than 3 μm. To provide a smooth initial surface for the cascade region, the optimal conditions for growth of homoepitaxial InAs layers were investigated over a wide range of substrate temperatures and As2/In flux ratios at a growth rate of 0.66 monolayer/s (ML/s). Material quality was investigated using differential interference contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The geometry of oval hillock defects on the InAs layers suggested that these defects originated at the substrate surface. The InAs-based IC lasers had emission wavelengths out to 11 μm, which is the longest wavelength among interband lasers based on III–V materials. By introducing intermediate superlattice (SL) cladding layers to enhance optical confinement and reduce internal absorption loss, the first continuous wave operation of InAs-based IC lasers at room temperature was demonstrated. The threshold current density of 247 A/cm2 for emission near 4.6 μm is the lowest ever reported among semiconductor mid-infrared lasers at similar wavelengths. ICPV and ICPD devices were developed based on the architecture of IC lasers. They both consist of multiple discrete InAs/GaSb SL absorbers sandwiched between electron and hole barriers. ICPV devices can be used in thermophotovoltaic systems that convert radiant energy from a heat source into electricity. Strain-balanced InAs/GaSb SL structures were achieved by adjusting the group-V overpressure during MBE growth. Two- and three-stage ICPV devices operated at room temperature with substantial open-circuit voltages at a cutoff wavelength of 5.3 μm, the longest ever reported for room-temperature PV devices. The interfaces of InAs/GaSb SLs were studied with the goal of improving the PDs designed for the long-wavelength infrared region. Two ICPD structures with different SL interfaces were grown by MBE, one with a ~1.2 ML-thick InSb layer inserted intentionally only at the GaSb-on-InAs interfaces and another with a ~0.6 ML-thick InSb layer inserted at both InAs-on-GaSb and GaSb-on-InAs interfaces. The material quality of the PD structures was similar according to differential interference contrast microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction measurements. The device performances were not…
Subjects/Keywords Molecular Beam Epitaxy; III-V Semiconductor Material; Laser; Detector
Contributors Yang, Rui (advisor); Santos, Michael (advisor); Murphy, Sheena (committee member); Ruyle, Jessica (committee member); Shi, Zhisheng (committee member); Johnson, Matthew (committee member)
Language en
Country of Publication us
Record ID handle:11244/34898
Repository oklahoma-diss
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2020-10-21

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…doped InAs layers as plasmon outer cladding layers in the waveguide. The plasmon waveguide structure was first implemented in QCLs by Sirtori et al. [22, 23] and was first applied to ICLs by our group at the University of Oklahoma [24]…