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Title Evaluation of Peanut Skin Extract, Grape Seed Extract, and Grape Seed Extract Fractions to Reduce Populations of Select Foodborne Pathogens
Publication Date
Date Accessioned
Degree MSin Life Sciences
Discipline/Department Food Science and Technology
Degree Level masters
University/Publisher Virginia Tech
Abstract Grape seed extract (GSE) and peanut skin extract (PSE) are waste products in the wine and peanut industries. Both extracts have high concentrations of polyphenols, known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. A subcategory of polyphenol is procyanidin, which can be divided into two types, type A and type B. Type A (PSE), contains two single bonds connecting the phenolic groups while type B (GSE), contains one single bond connecting the phenolic groups. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the two extracts was evaluated for their antimicrobial effect on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium using the pour plate method. GSE was found to have a significantly lower MIC (p ≤ 0.05) than PSE for L. monocytogenes (GSE=60.60ppm, PSE=not found), S. aureus (GSE=38.63ppm, PSE=51.36ppm), and S. Typhimurium (GSE=45.73ppm, PSE=60.60ppm). There was no significant difference in inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 (GSE=47.44ppm, PSE=51.13ppm). Since GSE, contributed to greater pathogen inhibition, its extract was fractionated into monomer and oligomers components. Growth curves of all four pathogens inoculated in the monomer and oligomer fractions were compared using the BioScreen method. Oligomers inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and E. coli O157:H7 while monomers inhibited growth of S. Typhimurium. These results indicate that an extract with type B procyanidins that are high in oligomers may be more effective as antimicrobials. Type B procyanidins have also been shown to prevent bacterial adhesion, as is the case with urinary tract infections, and may aid in the prevention of biofilms.
Subjects/Keywords Polyphenols; natural antimicrobials; grape seed extract; Vitis vinifera; peanut skin extract; E. coli O157:H7; Listeria monocytogenes; S. aureus; Salmonella Typhimurium
Contributors Boyer, Renee Raiden (committeechair); O'Keefe, Sean F. (committee member); Neilson, Andrew P. (committee member); Williams, Robert C. (committee member)
Rights In Copyright
Country of Publication us
Record ID handle:10919/48896
Repository vt
Date Indexed 2020-10-14
Grantor Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Issued Date 2014-06-10 00:00:00
Note [degree] Master of Science in Life Sciences;

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…8 Grape Seed Extract ..............................................................................................................8 Peanut Skin Extract…

…21 Chapter 3: Evaluation of Peanut Skin Extract, Grape Seed Extract, and Grape Seed Extract Fractions to Reduce Populations of Select Foodborne Pathogens ....................................26 Abstract…

…preservatives. This research focused on evaluating the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract, a type B procyanidin, and peanut skin extract, a type A procyanidin, against four pathogenic bacteria (L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. enterica serovar…

…were then tested for MIC values to discover the most effective component of the extract. 3 Objectives 1) Determine which crude extract, grape seed or peanut skin, demonstrates the most inhibition against four common foodborne pathogens (…

…type B are found in peanut skin extracts (PSE) and grape seed extracts (GSE) respectively (Lee and Jaworski 1987, Monagas, Garrido et al. 2009). The biological properties of procyanidins in vivo are greatly dependent on…

…which type (A or B) of procyanidin possesses greater antimicrobial activity may aid both the food safety industry and further research of natural antimicrobials by revealing where future efforts should be made. NATURAL EXTRACTS Grape Seed

…including flavonoids, polyphenols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins (Nassiri-Asl and Hosseinzadeh 2009). In the wine industry, the grape seeds are a waste product and disposed of either immediately in the case of white wine or after several days of…

…contact with the grape juice in the case of red wine. The contents of grape seed extract (GSE) is high in monomers, dimers, trimers, tetramers, and pentamers, or oligopolymers (Bozan, Tosun et al. 2008, Terpniques 2011). Ninety-seven…