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Title Copper, zinc, and manganese in beef cattle production: effects of supplementation and source on reproduction, mineral status, feedlot performance, immunity, and carcass characteristics
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Publication Date
Date Accessioned
Degree PhD
Discipline/Department Animal Sciences
Degree Level doctoral
University/Publisher Colorado State University
Abstract Over a two-year period, crossbred mature beef cows ( n = 178, Year 1; n = 148, Year 2) and young females (n = 43 nulliparous heifers, Year 1; n = 37 primiparous cows, Year 2) grazing in eastern Colorado were used to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn supplementation and source on reproduction, mineral status, immunity, and cow and calf performance. Cow treatments included: 1) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn); 2) organic (50% organic and 50% inorganic Cu, Zn, and Mn); and 3) inorganic (100% inorganic CuSO4, ZnSO4, and MnSO4) trace minerals. Heifer treatments included: 1) organic, or 2) inorganic trace minerals. Free-choice mineral feeders were used to provide current NRC-recommended concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn from 54 and 82 d (Year 1, heifers and cows, respectively) and 81 d (Year 2) prior to the average calving date of the herd through 110 and 119 d (Year 1, cows and heifers, respectively) and 135 d (Year 2) post-calving. Terminal steer and heifer calves from each year's calf crop were maintained on their appropriate pasture trace mineral treatments and had exclusive access to mineral treatments via creep feeders from approximately 95 d of age until weaning. After weaning, calves were grown and finished in a feedlot on the same pre-weaning trace mineral treatments. Performance, immune response, mortality, morbidity, mineral status, carcass traits, and longissimus dorsi fatty acid profiles were evaluated. In the grazing portion of the experiment, results indicate that trace mineral supplementation in cows and source in cows and heifers affected trace mineral status. Reproductive results were variable in heifers; however, in cows trace mineral supplementation improved pregnancy rate to AI compared to cows not supplemented with Cu, Zn, or Mn for more than 1 yr. Calf performance was greater in non-supplemented control calves vs. supplemented calves in both years, while source also affected calf performance but not consistently in both years. Trace mineral source did not affect calf performance in young grazing females. During the feedlot phase in Year 1, gain to feed ratio was greater in Inorganic vs. Organic calves in both the growing and finishing phases and greater in non-supplemented control calves vs. supplemented calves only during the finishing phase; however, gain to feed ratios were not affected by either supplementation or source in Year 2. Liver Cu and Mn concentrations were affected by supplementation, however immune response, morbidity, carcass traits, and longissimus dorsi fatty acid profiles were not different across treatments. Based on the reduced reproductive performance in non-supplemented cows, as well as literature indicating that Cu affects luteinizing hormone (LH) release, the effect of Cu status, supplementation and source on pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) were evaluated using 12 multiparous, non-pregnant, non-suckling, ovariectomized Angus cows. After receiving 5 mg Mo/kg diet and 0.3% S during a 216-d Cu depletion phase, nine cows were…
Subjects/Keywords Trace elements in animal nutrition; Beef cattle  – Feeding and feeds; Beef  – Quality
Contributors Engle, Terry E. (advisor); Burns, Patrick D. (advisor); Seidel, George E. (committee member); Whittier, Jack C. (committee member); Field, Thomas G. (committee member)
Language en
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Country of Publication us
Record ID handle:10217/170734
Repository colostate
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2021-05-07
Grantor Colorado State University
Issued Date 2004-01-01 00:00:00
Note [] 2004 Fall.; [] Includes bibliographical references.;

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