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Title The Antecedents and Outcomes of Host National Connectedness: A Study of International Students in New Zealand
Publication Date
Date Available
Degree Level masters
University/Publisher Victoria University of Wellington
Abstract While research on international students’ acculturative outcomes typically indicates that they generally thrive, one common source of struggle, noted by practitioners, researchers, educators, and the students themselves, is their inability to form connections with locals. Situated within the stress and coping and cultural learning frameworks of acculturation research, this study (N = 1527) examines the antecedents and outcomes of host national connectedness (HNC) among international students in New Zealand. Results indicate that both individual (age, gender, English language proficiency, and the motivation to belong) and contextual (cultural distance and perceived cultural inclusion) predict international students ability to connect with New Zealanders. Contextual variables explain additional variance in HNC above and beyond that explained by the individual variables. Results also provide support for the important role of connections in overall adjustment outcomes, as host national connectedness mediates the relationship between cultural distance, cultural inclusion in the classroom, and English language proficiency and both socio-cultural and psychological adaptation. Hence, host national connectedness serves as the mechanism through which international students attain positive psycho-social adjustment during the acculturation process. Applications for international students, institutions, and policy makers are discussed.
Subjects/Keywords International students; Host national connectedness; HNC; Acculturative outcomes
Contributors Ward, Colleen; Jose, Paul
Language en
Country of Publication nz
Record ID handle:10063/4229
Repository vuw-thes
Date Retrieved
Date Indexed 2020-06-19

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…Host National Connectedness and Acculturation Outcomes Acculturation research has highlighted that above and beyond general social support, host national connectedness (HNC), in particular, serves as a positive predictor of socio-cultural…

…adaptation and psychological adjustment. Since connections provide learning opportunities for international students, studies have indicated that HNC positively predicts socio-cultural adaptation within the cultural learning framework (Ward & Kennedy…

…support serves an important function, as it provides feedback about an individual’s appraisals and regulates the coping process (Aldwin, 2007; Thoits, 1986). Likewise, international students’ HNC has been linked to positive psychological…

…international students’ HNC is linked to higher levels of satisfaction with the international study experience (Furnham & Bochner, 1986; 22 The Antecedents and Outcomes of Host National Connectedness Rohrlich & Martin, 1991) and less homesickness…

…social isolation, and acculturative stress (Hendrickson et al., 2011; Ying & Han, 2006). However, research has not always supported this relationship (Ward & Kennedy, 1992) and evidence suggests that the quality of HNC is a more…

…important factor in psychological adjustment than the quantity (Ward & Rana-Deuba, 2000). In sum, these studies show that HNC is not simply an important variable because international students desire to obtain more connections with hosts. Rather…

HNC is an instrumental variable in the prediction of positive acculturation outcomes, in that it helps international students handle the two major challenges of crossing cultures: learning the skills and rules necessary to function successfully and…

…managing the stress of cultural transition. Factors Influencing Host National Connectedness In order to successfully foster HNC, researchers have examined the factors that promote and prevent the formation of these connections (Peacock & Harrison, 2009…